Zuora stores all dates as timestamps, but using timestamps in a query can be difficult - for example, setting the start time to be 00:00:00-08:00 and the ending time to be 23:59:59-08:00. For this reason, Export ZOQL has several features designed to simplify the use of dates in queries.
Compare datetimes with dates
Export ZOQL provides the capability to filter objects by comparing a datetime value with a date value.
See the following comparison between filtering by datetime values and by a date value. These two queries retrieve the same data.
|Filter with a datetime value||Filter with a date value|
SELECT * FROM Invoice WHERE UpdatedDate >= '2011-02-01T00:00:00' and UpdatedDate < '2011-02-02T00:00:00'
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate = '2011-02-01'
If you specify only a date, Export ZOQL interprets it as to include any time within the 24-hour period specified by that date. If you have multiple invoices created at different times on 2011-02-01, this query will find all of them. Similar rules apply when using other comparison operators. For example, the following query returns every invoice that was created on or after 2011-02-02:
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate > '2011-02-01'
Note that the datetime value must be the standard ISO 8601 format. If you do not specify the time zone in the datetime value, the default time zone is used. The default time zone differs according to the WSDL version. See Before Changing Your Time Zone and DateTime Field Behavior After Changing Your Time Zone for more information.
If you want to specify the time zone in the datetime value, you must follow Specify time zones in standard ISO 8601 datetimes.
You cannot specify the time zone in a date value. When Export ZOQL interprets a date value, the default time zone is used.
Use relative date expressions
Relative date expressions are an alternative way to specify dates and times. You can specify a time relative to now, or a date relative to today.
The general form of a relative date expression is:
now/today +/- quantity unit-of-time (time zone)
now/today is the keyword,
quantity unit-of-time is the offset,
time zone indicates the time zone that datetime value represents and is optional. If the
time zone is not specified in the date expression, the datetime value represents the time in the time zone of your tenant.
You can specify the following units of time:
now keyword to specify the current timestamp. Use the
today keyword to specify the current day.
now keyword to specify the current timestamp. Any expression starting with
now is a datetime type, and will only match other datetimes exactly.
The following query will return all invoices equal to the current timestamp minus 24 hours. For example, if the current time is 6 PM on January 15,
now - 1 day will return all invoices generated at 6 PM on January 14.
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate = 'now - 1 day'
To show all invoices generated in the last 24 hours, use
>='now - 1 day'. For example:
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate >= 'now - 1 day'
If daylight savings started or ended within the previous day, this could include the previous 23 or 25 hours, respectively, depending on the time zone.
today keyword specifies the current day. An expression starting with
today is a date, and will match a range of datetimes.
The following query will return all invoices from the previous calendar day, regardless of the time stamp (in other words, all invoices from 00:00 to 23:59).
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate = 'today - 1 day'
Use the following query to find all of the invoices created earlier than 30 days ago:
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate < 'today - 30 days'
See the following examples on how to use
+/- quantity unit-of-time to specify a time period with an offset.
- Query the data created later than 30 days ago.
SELECT Invoice.InvoiceNumber, Account.Name FROM Invoice WHERE UpdatedDate > 'today - 30 days'
- Query the invoices whose due dates are within the coming week.
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE duedate >= 'today' AND duedate < 'today + 1 week'
Specify time zones
The value of a datetime or relative date expression will change if the time zone changes. For example, 2011-02-01T09:00:00 is a different time when the time zone is America/New_York or America/Los_Angeles. Similarly,
today is a different range of datetimes, because midnight comes at different times depending on your time zone.
Because of this, you must consider time zones when writing Export ZOQL queries.
If you do not specify a time zone offset, the time zone of a query differs according to the WSDL version. If you use WSDL 69 or later, the default time zone of a query is the time zone of your tenant. If you use an earlier WSDL version, the default time zone of a query is Zuora system time zone. See Before Changing Your Time Zone and DateTime Field Behavior After Changing Your Time Zone for more information.
The format that you specify the time zone for a datetime value is different, depending on whether you use ISO 8601 format or the relative expression.
Specify time zones in standard ISO 8601 datetimes
If you use ISO 8601 datetime format in your export ZOQL query filter, you must specify the time zone as follows:
YYYY = four-digit year
MM = two-digit month (01=January, etc.)
DD = two-digit day of month (01 through 31)
hh = two digits of hour (00 through 23) (am/pm NOT allowed)
mm = two digits of minute (00 through 59)
ss = two digits of second (00 through 59)
TZD = time zone designator (Z or +hh:mm or -hh:mm)
This profile defines two ways of handling time zone offsets:
- Times are expressed in UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), with a special UTC designator ("Z").
- Times are expressed in local time, together with a time zone offset in hours and minutes. A time zone offset of "+hh:mm" indicates that the date/time uses a local time zone which is "hh" hours and "mm" minutes ahead of UTC. A time zone offset of "-hh:mm" indicates that the date/time uses a local time zone which is "hh" hours and "mm" minutes behind UTC.
2019-11-05T08:15:30-05:00 corresponds to November 5, 2019, 8:15:30 am, US Eastern Standard Time.
2019-11-05T13:15:30Z corresponds to the same instant.
Specify time zones in relative date expressions
If you use the relative date expressions in your query filter and you want to specify the time zone offset, you must include the offset in parentheses at the end of the expression as described in Format of relative date expressions.
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate < 'today - 30 days (-08:00)'
Because relative date expressions can span daylight savings start and end dates, you can encounter a case where the GMT offset changes within the relative range of the expression. To solve this problem, you can specify the time zone offset with the time zone database name. The following query uses the time zone database name
America/Los_Angeles as the time zone offset.
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate < 'today - 30 days (America/Los_Angeles)'
In addition, Zuora system supports the city name containing spaces instead of underscores when you specify a time zone name. For example, the following query is the same as the previous:
SELECT * FROM invoice WHERE UpdatedDate < 'today - 30 days (Los Angeles)'
The GMT offset based on daylight savings time is automatically adjusted when you specify the time zone with a time zone database name or the corresponding city name.
Query with datetime functions
In Export ZOQL queries, you can use the following functions to extract information about datetimes:
DATE() -interprets a datetime value as a numerically expressed date without hour, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.
YEAR() -returns only the year value of a timestamp. Example:
MONTH() -returns only the numeric value of the month from a timestamp. Example:
CreatedDatetimestamp value in a record was
WEEK() -returns only the numeric value of the week (values 0-53 from a timestamp depending on the year and the date). Example:
WEEK(2015-01-01T00:00:01.099)returns 0 and in the year 2015
WEEK(2015-01-04T00:01:01.009)returns 1 because after Saturday midnight (formally: Sunday) the new week begins.
QUARTER() -makes a standard interpretation of a datetime value as a numeric quarter value (
1-4). This function defines quarters by a traditional three-month calendar quarters starting on January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1. Offset quarters are not supported.
SELECT YEAR(UpdatedDate) FROM Invoice
SELECT SUM(Amount),QUARTER(UpdatedDate) FROM Invoice GROUP BY QUARTER(UpdatedDate)
SELECT SUM(UnitPrice) FROM InvoiceItem GROUP BY SKU,UpdatedDate HAVING YEAR(UpdatedDate)=2017
You cannot use datetime functions in